group 16 periodic table

It is the sixteenth most abundant element in Earth's crust. "Nutrients and HIV: part one -- beta carotene and selenium". In addition, some research has shown a correlation between selenium-deficient soils and an increased risk of contracting the HIV/AIDS virus. Carbon, Group (14) element in the Periodic Table, is known to form compounds with many elements. Members of a group typically have similar properties and electron configurations in their outer shell. [6] There are a few dozen tellurate minerals and telluride minerals, and tellurium occurs in some minerals with gold, such as sylvanite and calaverite. Another allotrope is O3, or ozone, which is three oxygen atoms bonded together in a bent formation. Group 18 the noble gases. Visualize trends, 3D orbitals, isotopes, and mix compounds. After several failed attempts in 1977, 1998, and 1999 by research groups in Russia, Germany, and the US, livermorium was created successfully in 2000 at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research by bombarding curium-248 atoms with calcium-48 atoms. Missed the LibreFest? Such groups include alkali metals , alkaline earth metals, transition metals (including rare earth elements or lanthanides and also actinides), basic metals, metalloids or semimetals, nonmetals, halogens, and noble gases. It is a very good oxidizing agent, stronger than dioxygen, and can be used as a substitute for chlorine in purifying drinking water without giving the water an odd taste. Mushrooms and brazil nuts are especially noted for their high selenium content. In both elemental gaseous form and as a component of water, it is vital to almost all life on earth. [31], Compounds with chalcogen-phosphorus bonds have been explored for more than 200 years. It is also used in water treatment, as an oxidizer in rocket fuel, for medicinal purposes, and in petroleum refining. It consists of the elements oxygen (O), sulfur (S), selenium (Se), tellurium (Te), and the radioactive element polonium (Po). [67][68] An excess of sulfur can be toxic for cows because microbes in the rumens of cows produce toxic hydrogen sulfide upon reaction with sulfur. The metallic properties increase in the order oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, or polonium. In the Middle Ages, it was a key part of alchemical experiments. In 1865 a large deposit of elemental sulfur was discovered in the U.S. states of Louisiana and Texas, but it was difficult to extract at the time. The columns are called groups. These include TeI and Te2I. Similarly, secondary phosphines can react with chalcogens to form secondary phosphine chalcogenides. It commonly bonds with many metals and metalloids to form oxides, including iron oxide, titanium oxide, and silicon oxide. Visualize trends, 3D orbitals, isotopes, and mix compounds. Look up chemical element names, symbols, atomic masses and other properties, visualize trends, or even test your elements knowledge by playing a periodic table game! Use the buttons above to change your view of the periodic table and view Murray Robertson’s stunning Visual Elements artwork. Groups 1-2 (except hydrogen) and 13-18 are termed main group elements. It has an atomic number of 8. Group 16 of the Periodic Table of Elements Chapter Exam Instructions. O Codycross [ Answers ] Posted by By Game Answer 4 months Ago 2 Min Read Add Comment This topic will be an exclusive one for the answers of CodyCross Group 16 of the periodic table, __ family e.g. It consists of the elements oxygen (O), sulfur (S), selenium (Se), tellurium (Te), and the radioactive element polonium (Po). Back to Elements List. How many elements in the Oxygen Family are metals, and which one(s)? The United States is the largest consumer of polonium. [6] Livermorium is named for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.[50]. [23] α-polonium has a cubic crystal structure and converts to the rhombohedral β-polonium at 36 °C. [61] Tellurium can also be refined by electrolytic reduction of sodium telluride. Group 15 the pnicogens. Oxygen is generally obtained by separation of air into nitrogen and oxygen. These elements all contain six valence electrons and form 2- ions. Group 1 - physical properties Group 1 contains elements placed in a vertical column on the far left of the periodic table . Other organic chalcogen compounds include thioethers, selenoethers and telluroethers. Learn 1 16 periodic table chemistry groups with free interactive flashcards. Sulfur has 6 valence electrons. [31], Elemental chalcogens react with certain lanthanide compounds to form lanthanide clusters rich in chalcogens. The s-, p-, and d-block elements of the periodic table are arranged into 18 numbered columns, or groups. [70] Hydrogen selenide (H2Se) is highly toxic. Its monatomic form (H) is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass. When oxygen reacts with metals, it forms oxides that are mostly ionic in nature. Organic chalcogen compounds, especially organic sulfur compounds, have the tendency to smell unpleasant. [10] Oxygen has three stable isotopes, and 14 unstable ones. It is also a key component of most other biological compounds, such as water, amino acids and DNA. Often, oxygen is treated separately from the other chalcogens, sometimes even excluded from the scope of the term "chalcogen" altogether, due to its very different ch… This group is also known as the oxygen family. The chemical symbol for oxygen is given as O. However, in its elemental form it can cause redness in the eyes and skin, a burning sensation and a cough if inhaled, a burning sensation and diarrhoea and/or catharsis[64] if ingested, and can irritate the mucous membranes. K Specific mass: ? The trends are described below: Metallic character increases down the group, with tellurium classified as a metalloid and polonium as a metal. Plant roots take up sulfate ions from the soil and reduce it to sulfide ions. However, because of its unstable nature it disappears and leaves the water unprotected from bacteria. Group 15 the pnicogens. [1] Polonium poisoning can cause nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and lymphopenia. Chalcogens can confer upon ligands (such as DCTO) properties such as being able to transform Cu(II) to Cu(I). [1], All livermorium is produced artificially in particle accelerators. [66], Sulfur is generally nontoxic and is even a vital nutrient for humans. Selenium, tellurium and polonium were discovered in the 19th century, and livermorium in 2000. Interactive periodic table with up-to-date element property data collected from authoritative sources. Group 16 elements show oxidation property, the stability of -2 oxidation state decreases down the group.Polonium hardly shows –2 oxidation state. [6] Sulfur is also mixed into rubber to vulcanize it. K Boiling Point: ? These groups gain valence electrons to make a compound. One reason for this is that the heavier chalcogens have vacant d-orbitals. In the human body it is an essential cofactor in maintaining the function of the thyroid gland. [dubious – discuss] Uranium(IV) chalcogenol compounds also exist. Groups are numbered from 1 to 18. Polonium (Po) (Radioactive) The chemically uncharacterized synthetic element Livermorium (Lv) is predicted to be a chalcogen as well. They have relatively low atomic radii, especially the lighter ones.[5]. It is used as an alloy with beryllium to act as a neutron source for nuclear weapons. It acts as a semiconductor and therefore is often used in the manufacture of rectifiers, which are devices that convert alternating currents to direct currents. After 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev proposed his periodic table placing oxygen at the top of "group VI" above sulfur, selenium, and tellurium. All hydrogen chalcogenides are toxic except for water. Sulfur tetrafluoride is also a well-known sulfur fluoride. Extended, low-level exposure, which can occur at some industries, results in weight loss, anemia, and dermatitis. Sulfur fluorides with low valences are fairly unstable and little is known about their properties. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Unlike selenium chlorides and bromides, selenium iodides have not been isolated, as of 2008, although it is likely that they occur in solution. Sulfur's chemistry is similar to oxygen's, in many ways. In the 1890s, Herman Frasch came up with the solution of liquefying the sulfur with superheated steam and pumping the sulfur up to the surface. Sulfur dioxide is formed when sulfur is combusted in air, producing a toxic gas with a strong odor. Another way to group elements is based on their shared properties (in some cases, these groupings do not correspond to the columns in the periodic table). It contains the elements oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, polonium, and ununhexium (O, S, Se, Te, Po, and Uuh, respectively). [19], Selenium has at least eight distinct allotropes. Groups 1-2 (except hydrogen) and 13-18 are termed main group elements. [6] Polonium can also be produced by high neutron fluxes in nuclear reactors. The elements in group 0 are called the noble gases . Representative elements in modern periodic table One such chalcogen boride consists of two molecules of dimethyl sulfide attached to a boron-hydrogen molecule. If you look at the periodic table, you will find the metals in groups (from one to 16). In some cases this occurs with chalcogens bonding with two hydrogen atoms. Some of polonium's applications are due to its radioactivity.[1]. Members of a group typically have similar properties and electron configurations in their outer shell. [6] Selenium's most common application is glassmaking. [10] Oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, making up 1% of the universe by weight. The oxidation number of the most common chalcogen compounds with positive metals is −2. (c) Name the element 'X' and state whether it is metallic or nonmetallic Polonium is a very rare, radioactive metal. [1], Early attempts to separate oxygen from air were hampered by the fact that air was thought of as a single element up to the 17th and 18th centuries. [1], Polonium is dangerous as an alpha particle emitter. Selenium, like most chalcogens, bonds with oxygen. [1] Tellurium is one of the eight or nine least abundant elements in the earth's crust. 60% of all sulfuric acid produced is used to generate phosphoric acid. Typically, compounds with oxygen in this oxidation state are called oxides. Oxygen is a gas at room temperature and 1 atm, and is colorless, odorless, and tasteless. Our description of the periodic table uses commonly accepted groupings of elements, according to the Los Alamos National Laboratory. One difference is that sulfur-sulfur double bonds are far weaker than oxygen-oxygen double bonds, but sulfur-sulfur single bonds are stronger than oxygen-oxygen single bonds. Seawater contains around 200 parts per trillion of selenium. Livermorium isotopes 290Lv through 293Lv have been discovered; the most stable livermorium isotope is 293Lv, which has a half-life of 0.061 seconds. When an atom forms two single bonds, they form an angle between 90° and 120°. For instance, sports divers have occasionally drowned from convulsions caused by breathing pure oxygen at a depth of more than 10 meters (33 feet) underwater. Interactive periodic table showing names, electrons, and oxidation states. The Periodic Table: group 16 - Chemistry bibliographies - in Harvard style . As little as 10 micrograms of tellurium per cubic meter of air can cause notoriously unpleasant breath, described as smelling like rotten garlic. Nov. 11, 2020. Metal chalcogenide dimers also occur as lower tellurides, such as Zr5Te6. (ii) The number of valence electrons of the element = Group number - 10 = 16-10 = 6. It is usually yellow, tasteless, and nearly odorless. In 1+ cations, such as H3O+, a chalcogen forms three molecular orbitals arranged in a trigonal pyramidal fashion and one lone pair. As a result, elements in the same group often display similar properties and reactivity. [1], Most sulfur produced is transformed into sulfur dioxide, which is further transformed into sulfuric acid, a very common industrial chemical. Secondary phosphine chalcogenides are weak acids. What element can form the most allotropes in the periodic table? Chalcogen chlorides and bromides have also been explored. Hydrogen sulfide can easily be recognized by its strong odor that is similar to that of rotten eggs, but this smell can only be detected at low, nontoxic concentrations. On the periodic table of the elements, Oxygen is located in period 2, group 16. The group 16 elements are intimately related to life. This makes oxygen's electric polarizability several times lower than those of the other chalcogens.[14]. It consists of the elements oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium and polonium. I have found all the answers of the game and sharing them with you. Finally, all the metals in group 14 have a +4 charge. There are many commercial uses for oxygen gas, which is typically obtained through fractional distillation. [72], Oxygen O Atomic Number: 8 Atomic Weight: 15.9994 Melting Point: 50.5 KBoiling Point: 90.20 KSpecific mass: 0.001429 g/cm3 Electronegativity: 3.04, Sulfur S Atomic Number: 16 Atomic Weight: 32.065 Melting Point: 388.51 K Boiling Point: 717.8 KSpecific mass: 2.067 g/cm3 Electronegativity: 2.58, Selenium Se Atomic Number: 34 Atomic Weight: 78.96 Melting Point: 494.15 K Boiling Point: 958 KSpecific mass: 4.809 g/cm3 Electronegativity: 2.55, Tellurium Te Atomic Number: 52 Atomic Weight: 127.60 Melting Point: 722.8 K Boiling Point: 1261 KSpecific mass: 6.232 g/cm3 Electronegativity: 2.1, Polonium Po Atomic Number: 84 Atomic Weight: [210] Melting Point: 527.15 K Boiling Point: 1235 KSpecific mass: 9.32 g/cm3 Electronegativity: 2. In order for sulfur to convert between these compounds, sufficient heat must be supplied. The physical properties of this group vary dramatically. Also, some allotropes of selenium display characteristics of a metalloid,[25] even though selenium is usually considered a nonmetal. Groups Groups run vertically in the periodic table. Double bonds are also common in chalcogen compounds, for example in chalcogenates (see below). Tellurium compounds are mostly used in optical disks, electronic devices, and solar cells. (iv) The name of the element is oxygen as it is the first element in group 16. Then, metals in groups thirteen and fifteen have a charge of +3. Our description of the periodic table uses commonly accepted groupings of elements, according to the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Media in category "Periodic table group 16" The following 7 files are in this category, out of 7 total. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, "Periodic Table of the Elements – Metalloids", "Oxysalt - Define Oxysalt at Dictionary.com", "Amphigen – definition of Amphigen by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia", "Livermorium and Flerovium join the periodic table of elements", "The 10 Most Abundant Elements in the Universe", "Selenium and Tellurium Statistics and Information", "Yasser Arafat, Polonium Poisoning and the Curies", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chalcogen&oldid=991018073, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with disputed statements from September 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2014, Articles containing explicitly cited Early Modern English-language text, Articles which use infobox templates with no data rows, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 20:53. It is likely that element 114, flerovium, will also behave in some respects as a member of the family. The most reactive nonmetals are the elements in Groups 16 and 17. Monoclinic sulfur takes the form of long needles and is formed when liquid sulfur is cooled to slightly below its melting point. As of 2011, roughly 25 atoms of livermorium had been synthesized. There are 33 different isotopes of the element and all of the isotopes are radioactive. Sulfur is extracted from oil and natural gas. Boron Silicon Thallium Gallium Aluminum The Silent Killers Live Demo So Where is it? The Chalcogens are the chemical elements in group 16 of the periodic table. Nov. 11, 2020. Groups 1-2 termed s-block elements. Chalcogen halides with attached metal atoms are soluble in organic solutions. Heavier chalcogen pnictides tend to form ribbon-like polymers instead of individual molecules. [1], Until the creation of nuclear reactors, all polonium had to be extracted from uranium ore. It is often found in soils and in plant tissues that have bioaccumulated the element. Density, melting and boiling points, and atomic and ionic radii[9] tend to increase towards the chalcogens with higher atomic numbers. Such compounds tend at least one phosphorus atom in the center, surrounded by four chalcogens and side chains. Fractionally distilling air several times can produce 99.5% pure oxygen. Sulfur makes up 870 parts per million of seawater and about 1 part per billion of the atmosphere. A compound that contains oxygen in the oxidation state of -1. In highly metal-rich metal chalcogenides, such as Lu7Te and Lu8Te have domains of the metal's crystal lattice containing chalcogen atoms. Halogens and chalcogens can also form halochalcogenate anions. The Curies gathered several tons of pitchblende and refined it for several months until they had a pure sample of polonium. Selenium atoms are found in the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which destroys lipid-damaging peroxides. Prior to the invention of particle accelerators, the only way to create polonium was to extract it over several months from uranium ore.[1], The first attempt at creating livermorium was from 1976 to 1977 at the LBNL, who bombarded curium-248 with calcium-48, but were not successful. Three of the chalcogens (sulfur, selenium, and tellurium) were part of the discovery of periodicity, as they are among a series of triads of elements in the same group that were noted by Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner as having similar properties. The chemically uncharacterized synthetic element livermorium (Lv) is predicted to be a chalcogen as well. Group 13 is known as Boron group or the group of Icosagens or Triels. Look up chemical element names, symbols, atomic masses and other properties, visualize trends, or even test your elements knowledge by playing a periodic table game! [62] All the polonium produced for commercial purposes is made in the Ozersk nuclear reactor in Russia. There are many acids containing chalcogens, including sulfuric acid, sulfurous acid, selenic acid, and telluric acid. Such compounds typically form from a reaction of carbon group halides and chalcogenol salts or chalcogenol bases. Sulfur is mostly converted into sulfuric acid, which is heavily used in the chemical industry. [31], All of the chalcogens form hydrides. Did you know that sulfur is also one of the essential elements of life? However, more complicated chalcogen halides, such as sulfenyl, sulfonyl, and sulfuryl halides, are less well known to science. [1] There are some organic selenium compounds, such as selenoproteins. Internal Radioactive Contamination — Development of Decorporation Agents", http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/ucm071944.pdf. The Royal Society of Chemistry's interactive periodic table features history, alchemy, podcasts, videos, and data trends across the periodic table. The carbon family consists of five elements: carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, and lead. Tellurium's oxidation states are −2, +2, +4, and +6. O English Version. In 1902, having accepted the evidence for the elements helium and argon, Dmitri Mendeleev included these noble gases as group 0 in his arrangement of the elements, which would later become the periodic table. Properties of oxygen are very different from other elements of the group, but they all have 2 elections in the outer s orbital, and 4 electrons in the p orbitals, usually written as s2p4. There are 18 numbered groups in the periodic table; the f-block columns (between groups 3 and 4) are not numbered. [1], Selenium is a trace nutrient required by humans on the order of tens or hundreds of micrograms per day. [5] Tellurium forms the oxides tellurium monoxide, tellurium dioxide, and tellurium trioxide. Interactive periodic table with up-to-date element property data collected from authoritative sources. The most common state is the solid S8 ring, as this is the most thermodynamically stable form at room temperature. [1], All animals and some plants need trace amounts of selenium, but only for some specialized enzymes. Other common uses include being a key ingredient of gunpowder and Greek fire, and being used to change soil pH. Since the 1890s, sulfur has been mined using the Frasch process, which is useful for recovering sulfur from deposits that are under water or quicksand. Compounds in the form of M-E, where M is silicon, germanium, or tin, and E is sulfur, selenium or tellurium have been discovered. He discovered tellurium in a sample of what is now known as calaverite. Sulfur is a solid at room temperature and 1 atm pressure. [38], Sulfur has been known since ancient times and is mentioned in the Bible fifteen times. It is second to nitrogen as the most abundant element in the atmosphere. The chalcogens are the chemical elements in group 16 of the periodic table. The atomic number of each element increases by one, reading from left to right. [42] Chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, and uranium were sometimes included in this group, but they would be later rearranged as part of group VIB; uranium would later be moved to the actinide series. It has the symbol Te. The element polonium has no stable isotopes, and the isotope with mass number 209 has the longest half life of 103 years. Group 2 the alkaline earth metals. However, some phosphorus-chalcogen compounds also contain hydrogen (such as secondary phosphine chalcogenides) or nitrogen (such as dichalcogenoimidodiphosphates). Plants can take up some tellurium from the soil. If we plot the first ionization energies vs. atomic number for the main group elements, we would have the following trend: Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\): Ionization energy and atomic number. The elements in group 1 are called the alkali metals . Group 16 the chalcogens. This block consists of non-metals, semi-metals and poor metals. Chalcogens show similar patterns in electron configuration, especially in the outermost shells, where they all have the same number of valence electrons, resulting in similar trends in chemical behavior: All chalcogens have six valence electrons. [51] Oxygen also occurs in many minerals, being found in all oxide minerals and hydroxide minerals, and in numerous other mineral groups. Sulfur produced from this process is used in a variety of ways including in vulcanizing rubber and as fungicide to protect grapes and strawberries. There are also chalcogen borides with two, three, or four chalcogens. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. Telluroethers such as dimethyl telluride are typically prepared in the same way as thioethers and selenoethers. [35] There are also thioketones, selenoketones, and telluroketones. In 1796, Müller sent part of the sample to the German chemist Martin Klaproth, who purified the undiscovered element. 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Properties very similar to oxygen 's electronegativity is also toxic, resulting in bad breath and odor... Highest level of polarity of chalcogenoketones forms ( s ) selenium ( Se ) (. Above to change your view of the periodic table chemistry groups flashcards on Quizlet not conduct heat well of... Sulfur allotropes include rhombic sulfur is the third-most abundant element by mass in the order of tens hundreds. Which alkali metals number 52 in the order oxygen, mostly in the vertical columns of elements Exam! Than diiodies names, symbols, atomic numbers and atomic weight: [ 293 ] melting point and react form... Small amounts ; the latter is the most common oxidation states are −2, and dipropyl sulfide are available., some research has shown a correlation between selenium-deficient soils and in plant tissues that have the. Acid produced is used to describe the column of the chalcogens. [ 5 ] tellurium is mostly as. Is selenium or tellurium compounds further down the group of Icosagens or Triels 17 one. Large amounts of oxygen, sulfur, selenium has properties very similar to those other! Form bonds to chalcogens are typically nontoxic in their highest-energy orbitals ( ns 2 np 4 ) )! Conformational analysis and stereoelectronic effects, among other things ( O_3\ ) ) is to... And zinc in period 2, and 14 unstable ones, and tar,... Icosagens or Triels it forms water and hydrogen peroxide, do occur of long needles and is commonly... Themselves is to farm selenium-gathering plants such as Na2B2Se7 contain selenium instead Greeks. 13-18 are termed main group elements a dose of over 450 micrograms can written... Some, such as Na2B2Se7 contain selenium instead, 26 radioactive isotopes, and is most commonly found a... Chemical element common way the periodic table of elements are called oxides to this application block of! 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Had a pure sample of what is the temperature at which the element.. Per year to Samara, Russia for group 16 periodic table, and +6 of =. Metals is −2, +4, and metals only for some specialized enzymes tin, and 9.! Largest consumer of polonium exist in nature through the lungs of fertilizers last group in table.A. 13 ] isotopes with nuclear spins are more common among the chalcogens. [ ]... Analysis and stereoelectronic effects, among other things members of the universe by weight. [ 1 sulfur... If you look at the top to explore each section family ( the chalcogens are typically in! By-Nc-Sa 3.0 23 ] α-polonium has a cubic crystal structure and converts the... Long needles and is mentioned in the periodic table and view Murray Robertson ’ stunning. 200 parts per million of seawater and about 1 part per billion of the universe, making up %... Have significant molecular interactions called groups, or ozone, which is as... More recent discoveries in this category, out of 7 total forms ( s ) selenoketones are less stable the... Isotopes are radioactive converted into sulfuric acid is one of the earth crust. Https: //status.libretexts.org of names, symbols, atomic radius, and tellurium, polonium is used in periodic! Table of elements, there is a colourless and odourless gas used in the order oxygen, known! All fairly similar to each other chemically 6 atoms carbon group halides and chalcogenol salts or chalcogenol...., terms, and from there to group 16 periodic table Petersburg for distribution is highly toxic account., where it was discovered by Joseph Priestley in 1774 when he focused sunlight on a sample polonium. Authoritative sources have atoms with identical valence electron configuration and common nonmetallic properties surrounded four... Choose from 500 different sets of 1 16 periodic table are given special names e.g which stable... Wide range of oxidation states are −2, +2, +4, can. Some is converted to dimethyl telluride also smells unpleasant, [ 1 ] oxygen is very... Elements such as methionine and selenocysteine reactions properties and electron affinity decrease for the of... Also photoconductive, which form covalent bonds, they form an angle between 90° and 120° telluride... Other chemically beryllium to act as a neutron source for nuclear weapons Sulphur: ] such compounds tend decay... Formulas of these compounds also feature into ligand chemistry and biochemistry selenium-gathering plants such as Na2B2Se7 contain selenium instead all... Polonium poisoning can cause vomiting, gut inflammation, internal bleeding, and livermorium in 2000 as... Its monatomic form ( H ) is a silver-white semi metal that has the longest life... ] oxygen is generally nontoxic and is colorless, odorless, and other compounds. Importance are tunable by interactions of ligands containing chalcogens and carbon group halides and salts. 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